By Kenneth M. Setton, Robert Lee Wolff, Harry W. Hazard
The six volumes of A heritage of the Crusades will stand because the definitive background of the Crusades, spanning 5 centuries, encompassing Jewish, Moslem, and Christian views, and containing a wealth of knowledge and research of the historical past, politics, economics, and tradition of the medieval international.
Read Online or Download A History of the Crusades, Volume II: The Later Crusades, 1189-1311 PDF
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Extra info for A History of the Crusades, Volume II: The Later Crusades, 1189-1311
The Normans must soon have found that the Zirid navy, once formidable, had dwindled away. The Zirid state was povertystricken and unable to maintain ships or to employ the services of corsairs on any large scale. Whatever barges were left were used in the grain traffic with Egypt and Sicily. Clearly the control of the sea had passed to Sicily. But Roger needed African bases, and in the summer of 1 146 a Sicilian fleet of two hundred ships under the command of George of Antioch again appeared before Tripoli.
Shortly afterwards, however, the Byzantines reconquered the Ionian islands earlier seized by the Normans, but two Byzantine attempts on Apulia itself in the late fall of 1 149 were thwarted by heavy storms. A war with the Serbs, perhaps instigated by Roger himself, put a stop to further Byzantine attacks. The Sicilian-Byzantine war outlasted the Second Crusade. Manuel and Roger continued to build coalitions designed to destroy each other. Both turned to advantage the tragic circumstances that marked the return of Louis VII and Conrad III from the scenes of their defeats.
Under the `amils, local magistrates (Arabic singular, gddi) served as judges; they were appointed by the Sicilian government with a view to pleasing the people. The population had to pay a special head tax, the jizyah, but no other services or tributes. As regards the collection of the customary taxes, such as the land tax and excise taxes formerly paid to the emir and the local shaikhs, Roger's representatives "employed persuasion rather than force". Ibn-abi-Dinar mentions this as one, but not the only, example of treatment which he calls just and humane, and which reconciled Roger's new Moslem subjects to his government.
A History of the Crusades, Volume II: The Later Crusades, 1189-1311 by Kenneth M. Setton, Robert Lee Wolff, Harry W. Hazard