By Walter Laqueur
Walter Laqueur strains Zionism from its beginnings - with the emancipation of ecu Jewry from the ghettos within the wake of the French Revolution - to 1948, while the Zionist dream grew to become a truth. He describes the contributions of such impressive figures as Benjamin Disraeli, Moses Hess, Baron Edmond de Rothschild, and Sir Herbert Samuel, and he analyzes the seminal achievements of Theodor Herzl, Chaim Weitzmann, and David Ben Gurion.
Laqueur outlines the variations among some of the Zionist philosophies of the early 20th century - socialist, Communist, revisionist, and cultural utopian - and he discusses either the spiritual and secular Jewish critics of the circulation. He concludes with a dramatic account of the cataclysmic occasions of global warfare II, the clandestine immigration of Holocaust survivors, the tragic ignored possibilities for co-existence with either the Arab citizens of Palestine and people within the surrounding international locations, and the fight to forge a brand new nation on an old land. Laqueur's new preface analyzes the present-day problems, and areas them right into a historic context.
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Additional resources for A History of Zionism: From the French Revolution to the Establishment of the State of Israel
Many of them genuinely needed a ‘religion of the heart’, something which Judaism obviously could not offer. The position of the Jewish avant-garde in the early decades of the nineteenth century was more difficult than it had been in Moses Mendelssohn’s time. Enlightenment preached a spirit of tolerance and implied a growing belief in Vernunftsreligion. But intellectual fashions had changed: Enlightenment had almost become a dirty word, and from reason and tolerance the emphasis had shifted to sentiment and tradition.
During the eighteenth century their occupational range gradually widened but most of them were still small traders, middlemen between the cities and the villages. They frequented the fairs, bought and sold meat, wool, and spirits; in Hesse they traded in cattle, in Alsace they acquired a strong position in the wine trade. In the formerly Polish territories there were many Jewish artisans but their existence was precarious; their position was as remote from the wealth and status of the members of the city guilds as that of the little Jewish hawkers from the ‘royal merchants’ of Hamburg or Lübeck.
Ahdut Ha’ avoda (Labour unity) Jewish workers’ party, 1919-30. Aliya immigration to Israel. Betar (Brit Trumpeldor) Revisionist youth organisation, founded 1923. Brit Shalom (Peace Covenant) Jewish association advocating Jewish-Arab rapprochement, c. 1925-33. Endziel the final aim (of the Zionist movement). Galut diaspora. Gdud Avoda Labour Legion (1920-7). Gegenwartsarbeit Zionist work in the diaspora. Hagana (defence) Jewish defence organisation. Halukka distribution of alms from abroad among the orthodox community in Jerusalem.
A History of Zionism: From the French Revolution to the Establishment of the State of Israel by Walter Laqueur