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By Iverson K.E.

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05 A. 7(a). 14 (c) (a) 15 V 5Ω A 4Ω 48 CIRCUIT ANALYSIS NORTON EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT 49 To summarize, the use of a Thevenin model is appropriate when the internal behaviour of a circuit is of no interest and only one voltage or current in an external circuit is of concern. 4 Norton Equivalent Circuit A useful alternative to the Thevenin model is the Norton equivalent circuit. 15b). The two models are, in fact, simply related, making their use in circuit analysis rather flexible. Given the parameters VOC and RO of a Thevenin model, it is a simple matter to find the parameters ISC and R of the equivalent Norton model.

The same comment applies to voltages. In general we do not know, before analysing even the simplest circuit, which terminal of a component will be at a higher voltage than the other. We therefore arbitrarily assign reference directions (using the arrowhead to denote the higher voltage) and see afterwards if the voltage is positive or negative with respect to that reference direction. We denote the unit of voltage by V. However, to avoid possible confusion with V denoting a variable, the term ‘volts’ is often employed in place of V.

3 The measurement of a voltage voltage. We have now completed the second of the four steps involved in circuit analysis. 4 will not necessarily be positive in value in the reference directions shown. The third step in systematic circuit analysis involves the application of KCL at the nodes (here A, B and C) associated with the as-yet-unknown voltages VA , VB and VC . Let us take node A first. There are four components connected to A and therefore four currents to add up and set equal to zero. We shall arbitrarily choose to sum the currents flowing into node A.

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A personal view of APL by Iverson K.E.


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