By Caroline Moorehead
They have been lecturers, scholars, chemists, writers, and housewives; a singer on the Paris Opera, a midwife, a dental health care professional. They allotted anti-Nazi leaflets, revealed subversive newspapers, concealed resisters, secreted Jews to defense, transported guns, and conveyed clandestine messages. The youngest used to be a schoolgirl of fifteen who scrawled "V" for victory at the partitions of her lycÉe; the eldest, a farmer's spouse in her sixties who harbored escaped Allied airmen. Strangers to one another, hailing from villages and towns from throughout France, those courageous girls have been united in hatred and defiance in their Nazi occupiers.
finally, the Gestapo hunted down 230 of those ladies and imprisoned them in a castle outdoors Paris. Separated from domestic and family, those disparate members grew to become to each other, their universal event conquering divisions of age, schooling, occupation, and sophistication, as they discovered solace and power of their deep affection and camaraderie.
In January 1943, they have been despatched to their ultimate vacation spot: Auschwitz. merely forty-nine might go back to France.
A teach in Winter attracts on interviews with those ladies and their households; German, French, and varnish records; and files held via international conflict II resistance firms to discover a dismal bankruptcy of background that provides an inspiring portrait of standard humans, of bravery and survival—and of the impressive, enduring energy of lady friendship.
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Additional info for A Train in Winter: An Extraordinary Story of Women, Friendship, and Resistance in Occupied France
It tied school curricula directly to the collection, analysis, and exploitation of war experience, particularly in the realms of tactics, command and control, the characteristics and effectiveness of equipment and weaponry, combat firing, and the operation of combat vehicles. Virtually all of the military schools shifted to 12hour days for instruction, 8 hours of which were spent in the classroom and training areas and 4 hours on self-study. The leavening of student-officers with combat-experienced students increased steadily from 30 percent on 1January1943 to 69 percent on 1 January 1944.
After service m the Belorussian Military D1stpct under I. P. Uborovich's tutelage, Novikov transferred to aviation and received flightltraining. " Almost miraculously, he emerged frdm the incident unscathed and survived to serve as chief of staff and then comman1er of the Leningrad Military District's (Northwestern Front) aviation forces, where hj was serving when Operation Barbarossa began. Novikov directed the Northwestern Direction and, despite Marshal oroshilov' s inept leadership, he performed well, so well, in fact, that Zhukov noted his ~Went when he took over command of the front from Voroshilov in September 1941.
S. Abakumov. After spending six y$s in Stalin's prison, Novikov was released and rehabilitated in 1953, several months aft¢r Stalin's death. Novikov performed admirably as Air Force commander, and, like hl1j illustrious counterparts of the 1930s, he suffered for his competency. 48 1 ~ VORONOV II One of the Stavka's leading specialists, Nikolai Nikolaevich Voron,ov, was the artillery equivalent of the airman Novikov. ced on artillery as a vital element of the combined-arms team. 49 A Red Army me~ber since 1918 and a veteran of the Civil War, Voronov graduated from the Higher Artillery Command School in 1924 and the Frunze Academy in 1930.
A Train in Winter: An Extraordinary Story of Women, Friendship, and Resistance in Occupied France by Caroline Moorehead