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The Ayyubids are one of the five Kurdish dynasties mentioned by Sharaf Khan Bitlisi in the Sharafnama as enjoying royalty. Clearly, however, the Ayyubids thought of themselves as Muslims first, rather than as ethnic Kurds. Other Ayyubids ruled in Syria until 1260. Indeed, the Kurdish writer–prince Abu al-Fida, who was followed by his son, ruled Hamah in Syria until 1342. The later rulers (meliks) of Hasankeyf in modern Turkey were also in charge of an Ayyubid successor state. AZADI. ” It has been used as the name of various Kurdish groups and journals.

Kurds, however, see Ataturk as the author of the racist and assimilationist policies pursued against them to this day by Turkey. During World War I, Mustafa Kemal established a reputation at the Battle of Gallipoli as one of the very few successful Ottoman leaders. After the war, he broke with the sultan and brilliantly led the 14 • AUTONOMOUS REGION Turkish War of Independence against the invading Greeks. He abolished the sultanate in 1923 and the caliphate in 1924. ” Famous reforms included establishing a secular state, adopting the Latin script, abolishing the fez, adopting surnames, and establishing women’s rights.

On 17 September 1992, Iranian agents also assassinated Ghassemlou’s successor, Sadegh Sharafkandi, while he was dining at a restaurant in Berlin. Earlier, the KDPI’s revolt against the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini’s new government had been completely smashed by the superior Iranian forces by 1981. Despite these failures, the Iranian Kurds are famous among their Kurdish brethren for having established the only Kurdish state in the 20th century, the short-lived Mahabad Republic of Kurdistan (January– December 1946).

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Air War - Desert Storm


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