Read e-book online An introduction to the theory of spin glasses and neural PDF

By V Dotsenko

ISBN-10: 9810218737

ISBN-13: 9789810218737

Goals to explain merely the recent zone of statistical mechanics referred to as spin-glasses, encompassing structures during which quenched disease is the dominant issue.

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The remarkably long spin lifetime of nanoseconds in semiconductors, corresponding to a spin flip or coherence length of tens of microns, raises the possibility of manipulating and probing spins states in small devices. The spins may be manipulated by external fields, optical excitation and even through the hyperfine interaction, and this forms the basis of the futuristic concept of quantum computing. It is important to realize that the nonequilibrium magnetization densities in semiconductors are tiny compared to the equilibrium magnetization densities in conventional magnetic materials.

Part 3 discusses polarized electron and X-ray techniques for the study of magnetic materials, the specialty of the authors. In Chap. 8 we discuss the generation of polarized electrons by laser excitation of GaAs, give experimental concepts of polarized electron experiments, and present the formal description of individual spin polarized electrons in terms of the quantum mechanical Pauli spinor formalism and the spin polarization vector. This concept is then extended to spin polarized beams. We discuss the interactions of polarized electrons with magnetic materials in terms of spin filtering, “spin-flip” excitations and spin “de-phasing”.

The energy dependence of the spin polarization P supports the half-metallic character. The high value of P suggests that the energy of the oxygen 2p-bands lies below that of the Fe 3d-levels (see Sect. 4) dent of the magnetic properties of the underlying material because of its small probing depth. Photoemission spectra from the elemental ferromagnetic metals Fe, Co, and Ni are complex because the 3d-states are not separated from the 4s, p-states as in magnetite. Additionally, a rich mixture of surface resonances and surface states is superimposed onto the bulk states [65].

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An introduction to the theory of spin glasses and neural networks by V Dotsenko

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