By William J. Clancey, Elliot Soloway
New views and strategies are shaping the sphere of computer-aided guide. those essays discover cognitively orientated empirical trials that use AI programming as a modeling technique and that could supply useful perception right into a number of studying difficulties. Drawing on paintings in cognitive idea, plan-based application reputation, qualitative reasoning, and cognitive versions of studying and instructing, this intriguing examine covers quite a lot of choices to tutoring dialogues.William J. Clancey is Senior study Scientist on the Institute for examine on studying, Palo Alto. Elliot Soloway is affiliate Professor on the collage of Michigan.Contents: synthetic Intelligence and studying Environments, William J. Clancey, Elliot Soloway. Cognitive Modeling and Intelligence Tutoring, John R. Anderson, C. Franklin Boyle, Albert T. Corbett, Matthew W. Lewis. figuring out and Debugging beginner courses, W. Lewis Johnson. Causal version Progressions as a origin for clever studying Environments, Barbara Y. White and John R. Frederiksen.
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For instance, if one is developing an alg e br a tutor it i s useful to have different representations for the following two expressions during t he e arly stages of teaching fact oring : 2AB + 4A , 2BA + 4A . There is evidence that the first expression can be more easily factored into 2A(B + 2) than can the second exp r essio n : Co mmut ativi ty of multiplication is not au tom at i c in many students, and the common factor of 2A mi ght not be seen in the second exp re ssi on above . On the other hand when we look at students who have mastered algebra and are learning calculus, it is no l onger necessary to re pres en t the distinction between these two forms.
Both the tutors and the tilt:O: Y are evolving objects and so it is not the case that the current embodiments of our tutors reflect all of the current insights of our theory. Still there is an approximation here and it is worthwhile to ask to what degree our tutoring experience confirmed the theory. The first observation is that students do seem to learn from the tutors. We think this is quite a remarkable fact and not something that we had really believed would work so well when we set out to build these tutors.
13. Anderson, 1 . R . and Thompson , R . , Use of analogy in a production syste m architecture, in: A. Orton y et al . (Eds . ) , Similarity and Analogy (to appear) . 14. Anderson , R. C . W. and Andre , T . , Conditions under which feedback facilitates learning from programmed lessons, l. Educ. Psychol. 63 ( 1972) 186-188. 1 5 . L. A. C .. Effectiveness of computer-based educa tion in secondary schools , l. Comput. -Based Educ. 12 ( 1 985 ) 59-68. 16. B loo m , B . S . , The 2 sigma problem: The search for methods of group instruction as effective as one-to-one tutori ng , Educ.
Artificial Intelligence and Learning Environments by William J. Clancey, Elliot Soloway